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8-Ball Rules
9-Ball Rules
14.1 – Continuous / Straight Pool

UPA Official 8-Ball Rules

Download a free copy of Official 8-Ball Rules (PDF File)

1. OBJECT OF THE GAME

8-Ball is played with a cue ball and fifteen object balls, numbered 1 through 15. Balls 1-7 are solid colors and commonly referred to as “low balls”, and balls 9-15 are striped and commonly referred to as “high balls.” One player must pocket balls of solid colors, while the other player must pocket the striped ones. The player pocketing their entire group and then legally pocketing the 8-ball wins the game.

2. LAG FOR BREAK

The player with the lowest official UPA speed (rating) shall break first with an alternating break format taking place thereafter. In the event that two players with equal speeds play, a coin toss shall take place to determine who breaks first with an alternating break format taking place thereafter.

2.1 HOW TO RACK: To begin the game of 8-ball, the colored balls are placed randomly in a triangle, called a “rack”. The base of the rack is parallel to the short end of the pool table and is positioned so the ball in the tip of the rack is located on the foot spot. The balls in the rack are pressed into contact with the foot spot, and remain in contact after the rack is removed. Within the rack, the 8-ball is centered while the two corners are occupied by two opposite groups with one being a solid ball and one stripe ball. The game begins with the cue ball in hand anywhere behind the head string. (That is, the quarter of the billiard table farthest from the rack), an area also commonly referred to as the “kitchen.” NOTE: The UPA acknowledges that tables may have flaws which do not allow for acceptable racks directly upon the foot spot. In these cases, players are allowed to rack within a dime’s radius of the direct foot spot to achieve a desired rack.

2.2 RACK YOUR OWN: When there is no official available, each breaking player shall be responsible for providing himself/herself a legal and solid rack.

3. LEGAL BREAK SHOT

For the break shot to be legal, the breaker with the cue ball behind the head string must either pocket a ball or drive at least four numbered balls to one or more rails. No ball is called and the cue ball is not required to hit any particular object ball first. If the breaker pockets a ball and does not foul, he/she continues at the table and the table remains open. When the breaker fails to make a legal break, it is a foul. When a foul occurs, the incoming player has the option of accepting the table in position and shooting, or requesting the balls be re-racked and having the offending player to re-break. If the breaker pockets a ball, it is still the same player’s inning. Break fouls include:

a. If the cue ball is touched by the cue tip and does not meet the legal break requirement, it is a foul and gives the non-breaker an option of accepting the table in position and shooting, or requesting the offending player to re-break.

b. If the cue ball is pocketed or driven off the table it is a foul and the non-breaking player has cue ball in hand behind the head string or from the “kitchen.”

c. If any numbered ball leaves the table or comes to rest on top of a rail, it is a foul and the non-breaking player has cue ball in hand.

4. 8-BALL POCKETED ON BREAK

Legally pocketing the 8-ball on the break wins the game for the breaker; assuming no other foul has been committed.

8-ball break losses:

a. When the 8-ball is pocketed on the break and the break did not meet all legal break requirements, or another foul simultaneously occurs, it results in a loss of game for the breaker.

5. OPEN TABLE

The table is always open immediately after the break shot. The player’s designated group (solids or stripes) will not be determined until a player legally pockets a called object ball. The table is considered an “open” table when the choice of groups (solid or stripes) has not yet been determined. When the table is open, it is legal to hit one group of balls in order to pocket another ball from the opposite group. NOTE: The 8-ball can never be struck first; this action would result in a foul.

6. CALL POCKET

In Call Pocket, it is encouraged that all balls be specified along with their intended pocket. However obvious balls and their respective pockets do not have to be specified. Any bank shot (object ball to rail), kick shot (rail(s) to object ball), or combinations (2 or more balls from either group) must be called to their designated pocket or they are considered a miss. When a player successfully pockets his/her designated object balls they continue their inning until either a miss or foul occurs.

Call pocket notes:

a. It is never necessary to specify details such as the number of banks, kisses, caroms, rails, etc.

b. Any balls pocketed, legally or illegally, as a result from a called shot will remain pocketed, regardless of group (stripe or solid).

c. The break shot is never considered a “called shot.”

7. BALL IN HAND FOUL PENALTIES

When a player commits a ball in hand foul, he/she must relinquish his/her turn at the table. The incoming player may now place the cue ball anywhere on the table to start his/her inning. If a player commits more than one foul on one shot, only one foul will be called. A player must make sure he/she has ball in hand before touching the cue ball. The following are cue ball in hand fouls:

7.1 CUE BALL FOULS ONLY:

a. Touching the cue ball: Touching or causing even the slightest movement of the cue ball (other than a normal shot), even accidentally, is a foul. However a player may use the ferrule or shaft of their cue to line up their cue ball when a “cue ball in hand” is in play (using the tip is a foul, and ball in hand will be given to the other player).

b. Touching a moving object ball: Touching a moving object ball is a foul as is allowing a moving ball to hit a foreign object.

c. Touching a still object ball: Any ball moved accidentally can only be replaced by the opponent. However the opponent may exercise the option of keeping disturbed ball(s) in new position if they so choose. The player who has committed the foul may move the fouled object ball back to original position only after receiving consent from the opponent. If the player who has fouled touches any of the disturbed balls without consent of opponent it will result in a loss of turn with ball in hand to the opponent.

7.2 SCRATCH: Pocketing the cue ball or driving it off the table is a ball in hand foul. If a scratch occurs while shooting the 8-ball, however, the 8-ball was not pocketed or removed from the table, the game continues with ball in hand to the opponent.

7.3 BAD HIT: If the first object ball contacted by the cue ball is not a numbered ball from the shooter’s established group, it is a ball in hand foul. NOTE: If the shooter has no remaining balls from his/her group in play, the 8-ball may then be contacted first.

7.4 NO RAIL: If, after the cue ball first strikes a legal ball, and neither the cue ball nor any other ball hits a rail or is pocketed, it is a ball in hand foul.

7.5 BALLS OFF THE TABLE: Causing any ball to come to rest off the playing surface is a foul and any such ball(s) are pocketed. This includes any accidental movement of a ball which results in a ball falling into a pocket. The ball accidentally pocketed is not brought back into play, and the incoming player has cue ball in hand.

If a player knocks a ball off the table and the ball returns to the playing surface after hitting a person or an object, it is a foul (the ball remains on surface). If no object or person was contacted, then normal rules of play apply once the ball returns to the playing surface.  NOTE: If a player removes the 8-ball from the playing surface it results in a loss of game.

7.6 FOOT ON THE FLOOR: Failure to have at least one foot on the floor at the moment the cue tip strikes the cue ball is a ball in hand foul.

7.7 JUMP SHOT: Any miscue on a jump shot is a ball in hand foul. A legal jump shot must be executed by stroking down through the cue ball (no scooping or miscues).

7.8 MOVING BALL: Shooting while any ball is moving or spinning is a foul.

7.9 DOUBLE HIT: If the cue tip strikes the cue ball twice on the same stroke it is a ball in hand foul. (Cue ball must be struck at a minimum of a 45° angle when in contact with intended object ball in order to avoid a double hit).

7.10 HEAD STRING: The base of the cue ball must be inside the head string on the break or it is a ball in hand foul.

7.11 BALL IN HAND PLACEMENT: To touch an object ball in any way while placing the cue ball is a foul.

7.12 INTERFERENCE: Not remaining seated while the shooting player is at the table may result in a tournament official calling a foul for interference. The non-shooting player may check a table briefly in order to determine whether or not a referee should be called; however, he/she must be seated again after determination. If a player shoots out of turn, or moves any ball except during his/her inning, it is interference. Talking, making noises, moving around, causing distraction (sharking) in some way, or conduct unbecoming that of a professional while the shooting player is at the table may also result in a tournament official calling a foul for interference. Talking may prompt a warning from the shooting player prior to an official foul being called.

7.13 MARKING THE TABLE: Marking the table in any way, which could provide a player with an advantage in executing a shot, is a foul, unless the mark is removed to the satisfaction of the opponent or referee prior to shooting.

7.14 PLAYING OUT OF TURN: Playing out of turn is a foul and play passes to the opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface.

7.15 USE OF EQUIPEMENT: Out of play balls may not be used to measure gaps or spaces of any kind. Using any equipment in a non-customary manner is never allowed and constitutes a foul. It is the responsibility of the shooting player to know what the intended use of each piece of equipment is; the bridge, jump cues, etc.

8. SAFETY PLAY

For reasons of strategy, a player may choose to pocket an object ball, and also discontinue his/her inning, by declaring “safety” to the opponent prior to the shot. The player calling “safety” must be sure that the opponent is aware of the declaration. Otherwise, he/she would be forced to continue playing. Any ball pocketed during safety play remains pocketed. NOTE: A safety shot still requires the normal attributes of a legal shot.

9. LOSS OF GAME

9.1 OPPONENT WINS: The opponent legally pockets the 8-ball.

9.2 8-BALL FOUL: When the 8-ball is removed from the table; when the 8-ball is pocketed in the wrong pocket or out of sequence; or when the 8-ball is pocketed while a foul occurred (i.e., shooting player pockets the 8-ball and simultaneously scratches). Game continues if the 8-ball has not been pocketed.

9.3 CONCEDING A GAME: Concession of a game or games in tournament play is never encouraged. The shooting player must finish his/her inning or the result shall be a loss of game(s) for the conceding player.

9.4 CONCESSION OF MATCH: Unscrewing any cues during the last game (or while the shooting player is on the hill), putting on a jacket, or undertaking any other actions which would indicate that the match is over, is considered a forfeiture of the match.

9.5 BALL TAPPING: Tapping balls is not permitted. The penalty for ball tapping shall result in the loss of the current game after a clear warning has been granted to the offender. Only tournament officials may tap in balls when warranted.

9.6 COACHING ASSISTANCE: A player is only allotted the right to ask any team member for input or advice in the planning or preparing to execute a shot once per game and only during their inning. Should the player receive advice from respective teammates spontaneously or purposely the current game shall be forfeited in favor of the opponent.

NOTE: When the shooting player decides to receive instruction from his/her team, the player is to call a “Time Out.” When a “Time Out” is called, the player is to then name one of their team members. The team member selected is to immediately assist the player without conferring with other members and may not use any items or tools to aid the shooting player.

10. STALEMATE

If in 3 consecutive innings by each player they purposefully foul or scratch because both players agree that any attempt to pocket or move an object ball would result in an immediate loss of the game, then the game is considered a stalemate. At this time the game would be re-racked and the breaker would remain the same, maintaining the integrity of the alternate break format.

11. GENERAL POOL RULES

11.1 SPLIT HITS: If the cue ball strikes a legal object ball and a non-legal object ball at about the same instant, and it cannot be clearly determined which ball was hit first, the judgment will go in favor of the shooter.

11.2 BALL REBOUNDS FROM POCKET: Balls must remain in a pocket to count as pocketed. If a ball goes into a pocket and bounces back on to the playing surface, it is not considered pocketed. If it is the 8-ball, it is not a win. If it is the cue ball, it is not a scratch. Clearing pockets which are full or nearly full of balls is the responsibility of the shooting player.

11.3 HANGING BALL: If an object ball hangs in a pocket, the ball is considered to be pocketed if it drops in 5 seconds or less after coming to complete rest by the hole. If a hanging ball drops in the pocket after being at rest for 5 seconds or more, the ball is returned to the original position on the edge and the incoming player may begin his/her inning. Both players will have the opportunity to argue their case, and the referee’s decision is final.

11.4 SUSPENDED BALLS: If one or more balls become suspended in a pocket beyond the edge of the slate because it is partially supported by other balls, it is considered pocketed if the removal of the supporting ball(s) would cause the supported/suspended ball to fall into the pocket. Tournament officials are the sole judges of whether this rule applies to any situation.

11.5 SETTLING INTO PLACE: A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections in the cloth or table slate. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal hazard of play and will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as a result of such settling, it is replaced as close as possible to its original position on the lip of the pocket. If a ball falls into a pocket during or just prior to a shot and it has an effect on the shot, the referee will restore the ball to its original position and the shot will be replayed. Players are not penalized for shooting while a ball is settling.

11.6 JUMP SHOTS: It is legal to cause the cue ball to leave the surface of the table by elevating the butt of the cue and, with a downward stroke, force the cue ball to rise off the playing surface. For the shot to be legal only the cue tip may touch the cue ball – the shot must not be “scooped” by the ferrule or shaft. Any miscue on a jump shot is a ball in hand foul. A legal jump cue must be at least 40 inches in length and constructed in typical cue fashion. NOTE: Standard jump cues are accepted including phenolic tips. However, cues that are not typical in appearance must be accepted and approved by the United States Professional Poolplayers Association (UPA).

12. TOURNAMENT DIRECTOR/REFEREES

12.1 PLAYER RESPONSIBILITY: It is the responsibility of each member to be aware of all rules, regulations, and schedules relating to his/her competition. Tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to make the information readily available to all players. However, the ultimate responsibility rests with each individual player. There is no recourse if a player does not obtain correct or complete information.

12.2 REFEREES: The League Operator (or his/her assistants) will perform the duties of a referee in the event that referees are busy or not utilized. If the Tournament Director, his/her assistants, or a referee is not to be found within a reasonable time frame, a spectator may sub as an official referee when agreed upon by both players.

12.3 PLAYING WITHOUT A REFEREE: When a referee or tournament official is not available, the players in the match will be responsible for racking balls, watching for fouls, and insuring adherence to the rules of competition. Both players may agree on an audience member to stand in and perform any duty of a tournament official.

12.4 QUESTIONABLE SHOT: If there is a shot that could be a questionable hit or foul, the seated player is responsible for calling for a tournament official to watch the hit before the opponent shoots. Once notified, the player at the table must then wait for an official to watch the shot. Likewise, if a player is uncertain whether some rule has been broken, he/she is responsible for seeking immediate clarification from league officials or rule book before play continues. After play continues, it is unlikely that a problem can be remedied.

12.5 ADVICE VS. RULES CLARIFICATION: The referee must NEVER give advice nor offer an opinion on points of play. Only when asked by either player for clarification of a rule will the referee then explain that specific rule to the best of his/her ability. Any incorrect statement by the referee will not protect a player from enforcement of the actual rule. When asked, the referee must tell either player the score, whether the cue ball is frozen to an object ball or rail, etc. If the referee sees that a foul is about to be committed by either player, he must say nothing until after the foul, since any warning before the foul would constitute “advice” from the referee.

12.6 PROMPTING WARNINGS: When it is either player’s opinion that the referee is failing to issue a mandatory warning, he/she may remind the referee that such a warning is necessary.

12.7 CALLING FOULS: The referee will call all fouls as soon as they occur and will inform the incoming player that he/she has ball in hand.

12.8 PROTESTING FOULS: If a player believes that the referee has failed to call a foul, he/she must protest to the referee before his/her opponent takes his/her next shot. If the player fails to do so, the foul is considered not to have occurred.

12.9 RESTORING POSITION: When it becomes necessary, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of their ability. The referee may solicit information for this purpose, if he/she is not sure of original positions. If the balls were disturbed by a player in the match, his/her opponent has the option of preventing restoration. If the balls were disturbed by someone else, then it is mandatory for the referee to restore the balls. In this case, the referee may instruct the shooter to replay the shot after restoration, if the outside interference had an effect on the outcome of the shot. If not, the referee will instruct the shooter to continue play after restoration.

12.10 VERIFICATION: The referee may use any means to gather needed information to make a decision concerning a disputed play or game situation.

12.11 REPLAY OF GAME: If a tournament official or his/her appointed substitute, cannot make a clear determination of the facts or specific circumstances relating to a given rule or game situation, the tournament official has the option of requiring that shot be replayed or a game be restarted.

12.12 RESOLVING DISPUTES: Any disagreement between the two players will be resolved by the League Operator, his/her appointed substitute, or any administrative member of the UPA.

12. SPECIAL RULINGS

Any rule or situation not covered in this text shall be decided by the League Operator, his/her appointed substitute or any administrative member of the UPA in accordance with UPA ideals and guidelines in an expedient manner for the purposes of league play to continue. Such expedient rulings shall then be made known to the administration of the UPA Corporate office and its Touring Professionals before further instruction or implementation of the matter is finalized.

13.1 BYLAWS: These rules are not to be altered in any form and implementation of bylaws is prohibited.

a. ADDENDUM:From time to time there may be addendums issued by the UPA to the UPA official Rule book and it is the individual player’s responsibility to keep current.

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UPA Official 9-Ball Rules

Download a free copy of Official 9-Ball Rules (PDF File)

1. OBJECT OF THE GAME

The object of 9-ball is to win by legally pocketing the 9-ball.

The cue ball must strike the lowest numbered ball first for legal hit to occur. After the lowest ball is struck first, either the cue ball or any numbered ball may hit the 9 ball into any pocket for the win. If the shooting player pockets the lowest numbered ball or other numbered ball after a legal hit, the shooting player continues his/her inning. If no ball is pocketed, either the cue ball or any numbered ball must touch a rail after the cue ball contacts the lowest numbered ball for the shot to be legal.

NOTE: If the 9-ball is pocketed illegally, then it is to be spotted on the foot spot with incoming player having “ball in hand.”

2. LAG FOR BREAK

The Player with the lowest official UPA Speed (Rating) shall break first with an alternating break format taking place thereafter. In the event that two players with equal speeds play, a coin toss shall determine who breaks first with an alternating break format taking place thereafter. In non-league play, both players lag to the end rail and back to the head rail to determine who breaks first. Winner of lag is the player whose ball is closer to head of the rail.

2.1  HOW TO RACK:  The balls are racked in a diamond shape with the 1-ball on the foot spot at the top of the diamond, the 9-Ball in the center of the diamond, the 2-ball at the bottom of the diamond, and the rest of the balls randomly dispersed throughout the rack.

2.2  RACK YOUR OWN:  When there is no official available, each breaking player shall be responsible for providing himself/herself a legal and solid rack.

2.3  BALL TAPPING: Tapping or touching balls is not permitted once the rack is removed from the balls. The penalty for ball tapping/touching after the rack has been removed is a loss of break.

3. LEGAL BREAK SHOT

With cue ball in hand behind the head string, the one ball must be struck first and any three numbered balls must hit the rail. Balls dropping in any pocket counts as going past the center line.

Break fouls include:

a. If the cue ball is touched by the cue tip and does not meet the legal break requirement, it is a foul and gives the non-breaker an option of cue ball in hand or a re-rack with the original player breaking again.

b. If the cue ball is pocketed or driven off the table, it is a foul and the non-breaking player has cue ball in hand.

c. If any numbered ball leaves the table or comes to rest on top of a rail, it is a foul and the non-breaking player has cue ball in hand.

d. A foul on the break attempt counts toward the three fouls in the “three consecutive fouls” loss of game rule.

4. 9-BALL POCKETED ON BREAK

Legally pocketing the 9-ball on the break wins the game for the breaker.

5. PUSH OUT

a. Only on the inning immediately following the break, the shooting player may elect to call a “Push.” On a Push out, the shooter is required to hit the cue ball with the tip of the cue, but the cue ball is not required to touch another ball or a rail. Therefore, the rules “BAD HIT,” “NO RAIL,” and “TABLE SCRATCH” under “BALL IN HAND FOULS” do not apply, but all other foul rules are still in effect. The shooting player must declare his intention to push by saying “Push” or “Push Out” either to his opponent or to the referee, or the shot is considered a normal shot. Any ball pocketed on a Push stays down except the 9-Ball, which would be spotted on the foot spot immediately following the Push. Following a legal Push shot, the incoming player has the option to take the shot from the new layout or to pass the shot back to the player who pushed out. No matter who shoots next, on the shot immediately following the Push out, all “BALL IN HAND FOULS” now apply, and the normal course of play continues.

6. CONTINUING PLAY

On the shot immediately following a legal break, the shooting player may play a “PUSH OUT.” If the breaker pockets one or more balls on a legal break, he/she continues to shoot until he misses, fouls, or wins the game. If the player misses or fouls, the other player begins an inning and shoots until missing, committing a foul, or winning. The game ends when the 9-Ball is pocketed on a legal shot or game is forfeited for serious infractions of the rules.

7. BALL IN HAND FOUL PENALTIES

When a player commits a ball in hand foul, he/she must relinquish his turn at the table. The incoming player may now place the cue ball anywhere on the table to start his/her inning. If a player commits more than one foul on one shot, only one foul will be called. A player must make sure he/she has ball in hand before touching the cue ball. The following are cue ball in hand fouls:

7.1 CUE BALL FOULS ONLY:

a. Touching the cue ball: Touching or causing even the slightest movement of the cue ball (other than a normal shot), even accidentally, is a foul. However, a player may use the ferrule or shaft of his/her cue to line up his/her cue ball when a “cue ball in hand” is in play (using the tip is a foul and ball in hand will be given to the other player).

b. Touching a moving object ball: Touching a moving object ball is a foul as is allowing a moving ball to hit a foreign object.

c. Touching a still object ball: Any ball moved accidentally can only be replaced by the opponent. However, the opponent may exercise the option of keeping disturbed ball(s) in new position if they so choose. The player who has committed the foul may move the fouled object ball back to original position only after receiving consent from the opponent. If the player who has fouled touches any of the disturbed balls without consent of opponent it will result in a loss of turn with ball in hand to the opponent.

7.2 SCRATCH: Pocketing the cue ball or driving it off the table is a ball in hand foul.

7.3 BAD HIT: If the first object ball contacted by the cue ball is not the lowest numbered ball in the remaining order it is a ball in hand foul.

7.4 NO RAIL: If, after the cue ball first strikes a legal ball and neither the cue ball nor any other ball hits a rail or is pocketed, it is a ball in hand foul.

7.5 BALLS OFF THE TABLE: Except for a legal shot, causing any ball to come to rest off the playing surface is a foul. This includes any accidental movement of a ball which results in a ball falling into a pocket. The ball accidentally pocketed is not brought back into play, and the incoming player has cue ball in hand.

If a player knocks a ball off the table, it is a foul. If the ball returns to the playing surface after hitting a person or an object, it is a foul. NOTE: If a player removes the 9-ball from the playing surface, it results as a foul and the 9-ball is placed on the foot spot.

7.6 FOOT ON THE FLOOR: Failure to have at least one foot on the floor at the moment the cue tip strikes the cue ball is a ball in hand foul.

7.7 JUMP SHOT: Any miscue on a jump shot is a ball in hand foul. A legal jump shot must be executed by stroking down through the cue ball (no scooping or miscues).

7.8 MOVING BALL: Shooting while any ball is moving or spinning is a foul.

7.9 DOUBLE HIT: If the cue tip strikes the cue ball twice on the same stroke it is a ball in hand foul. (Cue ball must be struck at a minimum of a 45° angle when in contact with intended object ball in order to avoid a double hit).

7.10 HEAD STRING: The base of the cue ball must be inside the head string on the break or it is a ball in hand foul.

7.11 BALL IN HAND PLACEMENT: To touch an object ball in any way while placing the cue ball is a foul.

7.12 INTERFERENCE: Not remaining seated while the shooting player is at the table may result in a tournament official calling a foul for interference. The non-shooting player may check a table briefly in order to determine whether or not a referee should be called. However, he/she must be seated again after determination. If a player shoots out of turn, or moves any ball except during his/her inning, it is interference.

Talking, making noises, moving around, causing distraction (sharking) in some way, or conduct unbecoming that of a professional while the shooting player is at the table may also result in a tournament official calling a foul for interference. Talking may prompt a warning from the shooting player prior to an official foul being called.

7.13 MARKING THE TABLE: Marking the table in any way, which could provide a player with an advantage in executing a shot, is a foul, unless the mark is removed to the satisfaction of the opponent or referee prior to shooting.

7.14 PLAYING OUT OF TURN: Playing out of turn is a foul and play passes to the opponent. The cue ball is in hand, and the incoming player may place it anywhere on the playing surface.

7.15 USE OF EQUIPEMENT: Out of play balls may not be used to measure gaps or spaces of any kind. Using any equipment in a non-customary manner is never allowed and constitutes a foul. It is the responsibility of the shooting player to know what the intended use is of equipment: the bridge, jump cues, etc.

8. LOSS OF GAME

8.1 OPPONENT WINS: The opponent legally pockets the 9-ball.

8.2 THREE CONSECUTIVE FOULS: If a shooter commits a foul three times in a row without making an intervening legal shot, the result is a loss of game. The three consecutive fouls must occur in one game; fouls do not carry over to next game. A warning must be given by the referee (or by the opponent, if referee is not present) before the possible third foul, for the third foul to be a loss of game.

8.3 CONCEDING A GAME: Concession of a game or games in tournament play is never encouraged. The shooting player must finish his/her inning or the result shall be a loss of game(s) for the conceding player.

8.4 CONCESSION OF MATCH: Unscrewing any cues during the last game (or while the shooting player is on the hill), putting on a jacket, or undertaking any other actions which would indicate that the match is over, is considered a forfeiture of the match.

8.5 COACHING ASSISTANCE: A player is only allotted the right to ask any team     member for input or advice in the planning or preparing to execute a shot once per game and only during his/her inning. Should the player receive advice from respective teammates spontaneously or purposely the current game shall be forfeited in favor of the opponent.

NOTE: When the shooting player decides to receive instruction from his/her team, the player is to call a “Time Out.” When a “Time Out” is called, the player is to then name one of his/her team members. The team member selected is to immediately assist the player without conferring with other members and may not use any items or tools to aid the shooting player.

9. GENERAL POOL RULES

9.1  SPLIT HITS: If the cue ball strikes a legal object ball and a non-legal object ball at about the same instant, and it cannot be clearly determined which ball was hit first, the judgment will go in favor of the shooter.

9.2  BALL REBOUNDS FROM POCKET: Balls must remain in a pocket to count as pocketed. If a ball goes into a pocket and bounces back on to the playing surface, it is not considered pocketed. If it is the 9-ball, it is not a win. If it is the cue ball, it is not a scratch. Clearing pockets which are full or nearly full of balls is the responsibility of the shooting player.

9.3  HANGING BALL: If an object ball hangs in a pocket, the ball is considered to be pocketed if it drops in 5 seconds or less after coming to complete rest by the hole. If a hanging ball drops in the pocket after being at rest for 5 seconds or more, the ball is returned to the original position on the edge and the incoming player’s may begin his/her inning. Both players will have the opportunity to argue their case, and the referee’s decision is final.

9.4  SUSPENDED BALLS: If one or more balls become suspended in a pocket beyond the edge of the slate because it is partially supported by other balls, it is considered pocketed if the removal of the supporting ball(s) would cause the supported/suspended ball to fall into the pocket. Tournament officials are the sole judges of whether this rule applies to any situation.

9.5  SETTLING INTO PLACE: A ball may settle slightly after it appears to have stopped, possibly due to slight imperfections in the cloth or table slate. Unless this causes a ball to fall into a pocket, it is considered a normal hazard of play, and will not be moved back. If a ball falls into a pocket as a result of such settling, it is replaced as close as possible to its original position on the lip of the pocket. If a ball falls into a pocket during or just prior to a shot and it has an effect on the shot, the referee will restore the ball to its original position and the shot will be replayed. Players are not penalized for shooting while a ball is settling.

9.6  JUMP SHOTS: It is legal to cause the cue ball to leave the surface of the table by elevating the butt of the cue and, with a downward stroke, force the cue ball to rise off the playing surface. For the shot to be legal only the cue tip may touch the cue ball – the shot must not be “scooped” by the ferrule or shaft. Any miscue on a jump shot is a ball in hand foul. A legal jump cue must be at least 40 inches in length and constructed in typical cue fashion. NOTE: Standard jump cues are accepted including phenolic tips.  However, cues that are not typical in appearance must be accepted and approved by the United States Professional Poolplayers Association (UPA).

10. TOURNAMENET DIRECTOR / REFEREES

10.1 PLAYER RESPONSIBILITY: It is the responsibility of each member to be aware of all rules, regulations, and schedules relating to his/her competition. Tournament officials will make every reasonable effort to make the information readily available to all players; however, the ultimate responsibility rests with each individual player. There is no recourse if a player does not obtain correct or complete information. NOTE: Players may always call for rules clarification during league play. This is not considered a “Time Out.”

10.2 REFEREES: The League Operator (or his/her assistants) will perform the duties of a referee in the event that referees are busy or not utilized. If the Tournament Director, his/her assistants or a referee is not to be found within a reasonable time frame, a spectator may sub as an official referee when agreed upon by both players.

10.3 PLAYING WITHOUT A REFEREE: When a referee or tournament official is not available, the players in the match will be responsible for racking balls, watching for fouls, and insuring adherence to the rules of competition. Both players may agree on an audience member to stand in and perform any duty of a tournament official.

10.4 QUESTIONABLE SHOT: If there is a shot that could be a questionable hit or foul, the seated player is responsible for calling for a tournament official to watch the hit before the opponent shoots. Once notified, the player at the table must then wait for an official to watch the shot. Likewise, if a player is uncertain whether some rule has been broken, he is responsible for seeking immediate clarification from league officials or rule book before play continues. After play continues, it is unlikely that a problem can be remedied.

10.5 ADVICE VS. RULES CLARIFICATION: The referee must NEVER give advice nor offer an opinion on points of play. Only when asked by either player for clarification of a rule will the referee then explain that specific rule to the best of his/her ability. Any incorrect statement by the referee will not protect a player from enforcement of the actual rule. When asked, the referee must tell either player the score, whether the cue ball is frozen to an object ball or rail, etc. If the referee sees that a foul is about to be committed by either player, he must say nothing until after the foul, since any warning before the foul would constitute “advice” from the referee.

10.6 PROMPTING WARNINGS: When it is either player’s opinion that the referee is failing to issue a mandatory warning, he/she may remind the referee that such a warning is necessary.

10.7 CALLING FOULS: The referee will call all fouls as soon as they occur and will inform the incoming player that he/she has ball in hand.

10.8 PROTESTING FOULS: If a player believes that the referee has failed to call a foul, he must protest to the referee before his/her opponent takes his/her next shot. If the player fails to do so, the foul is considered not to have occurred.

10.9 RESTORING POSITION: When it becomes necessary, the referee will restore disturbed balls to their original positions to the best of their ability. The referee may solicit information for this purpose if he/she is not sure of original positions. If the balls were disturbed by a player in the match, his/her opponent has the option of preventing restoration. If the balls were disturbed by someone else, then it is a mandatory for the referee to restore the balls. In this case, the referee may instruct the shooter to replay the shot after restoration, if the outside interference had an effect on the outcome of the shot. If not, the referee will instruct the shooter to continue play after restoration.

10.10 VERIFICATION: The referee may use any means to gather needed information to make a decision concerning a disputed play or game situation.

10.11  REPLAY OF GAME: If a tournament official or his/her appointed substitute cannot make a clear determination of the facts, or specific circumstances relating to a given rule or game situation, the tournament official has the option of requiring that shot be replayed or a game be restarted.

10.12  RESOLVING DISPUTES: Any disagreement between the two players will be resolved by the League Operator or his/her appointed substitute, or any administrative member of the UPA.

11. SPECIAL RULINGS

Any rule or situation not covered in this text shall be decided by the League Operator, his/her appointed substitute or any administrative member of the UPA in accordance with UPA ideals and guidelines in an expedient manner for the purposes of league play to continue. Such expedient rulings shall then be made known to the administration of the UPA and its Touring Professionals before further instruction or implementation of the matter is finalized.

11.1 BYLAWS: These rules are not to be altered in any form and implementation of bylaws is prohibited.

a. ADDENDUM: From time to time there may be addendums issued by the UPA to the UPA official Rule book and it is the individual player’s responsibility to keep current.

 

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14.1 Straight Pool

World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA)

14.1 Straight Pool, also known as straight pool, is played with fifteen numbered balls and the cue ball. Each ball pocketed on a legal called shot counts one point and the first player to reach the required score wins the match. 14.1 is continuous in that after fourteen balls are pocketed, they are re-racked and the shooter continues.

4.1 Lagging for the Break
Players lag to determine who will shoot first.

4.2 The 14.1 Rack
For an opening break shot, the fifteen balls are racked in a triangle with the apex ball on the foot spot. When the balls are re-racked, the apex ball is omitted if only fourteen balls are being racked. The marked outline of the triangle will be used to determine whether an intended break ball is in the rack area.

4.3 Opening Break Shot
The following rules apply to the opening break shot:
(a) The cue ball begins in hand behind the head string.
(b) If no called ball is pocketed, the cue ball and two object balls must each be driven to a rail or the shot is a breaking foul. (See 8.4 Driven to a Rail.) This is penalized by subtracting two points from the breaker’s score. (See 4.10 Breaking Foul.) The non-breaking player may accept the balls in position or may require the breaker to play another opening break shot, until he satisfies the requirements for an opening break or the non-shooting player accepts the table in position. (See 4.11 Serious Fouls)

4.4 Continuing Play and Winning the Game
The shooter remains at the table as long as he continues to legally pocket called balls or wins the game by scoring the required number of points. When fourteen balls from a rack have been legally pocketed, play is suspended until the balls are re-racked.

4.5 Shots Required to Be Called
Shots must be called as explained in 1.6 Standard Call Shot. The shooter may call “safety” in which case play passes to the opponent at the end of the shot and any object ball pocketed on the safety is spotted.

4.6 Spotting Balls
All balls pocketed on fouls, or on safeties, or without a called ball having been pocketed, and all balls driven off the table are spotted. (See 1.4 Spotting Balls.) If the fifteenth ball of a rack needs to be spotted and the fourteen balls have not been touched, the fifteenth ball will spot on the apex spot and the referee may use the triangle to assure a tight rack.

4.7 Scoring
The shooter scores one point for legally pocketing a called shot. Each additional ball pocketed on such a shot also counts one point. Fouls are penalized by subtracting points from the offending player’s score. Scores may be negative due to penalties from fouls.

4.8 Special Racking Situations
When the cue ball or fifteenth object ball interferes with racking fourteen balls for a new rack, the following special rules apply. A ball is considered to interfere with the rack if it is within or overlaps the outline of the rack. The referee will state when asked whether a ball interferes with the rack.
(a) If the fifteenth ball was pocketed on the shot that scored the fourteenth ball, all fifteen balls are re-racked.
(b) If both balls interfere, all fifteen balls are re-racked and the cue ball is in hand behind the head string.
(c) If only the object ball interferes, it is placed on the head spot or the center spot if the cue ball blocks the head spot.
(d) If only the cue ball interferes, then it is placed as follows: if the object ball is in front of or on the head string, the cue ball is in hand behind the head string; if the object ball is behind the head string, the cue ball is spotted on the head spot, or on the center spot if the head spot is blocked.
In any case, there is no restriction on which object ball the shooter may play as the first shot of the new rack.

14.1 rules

4.9 Standard Fouls
If the shooter commits a standard foul, a point is subtracted from his score, balls are spotted as necessary, and play passes to his opponent. The cue ball remains in position except as noted below.

The following are standard fouls at 14.1:

6.1 Cue Ball Scratch or off the Table The cue ball is in hand behind the head string (see 1.5 Cue Ball in Hand).
6.3 No Rail after Contact
6.4 No Foot on Floor
6.5 Ball Driven off the Table (All object balls driven off the table are respotted.)
6.6 Touched Ball
6.7 Double Hit / Frozen Balls
6.8 Push Shot
6.9 Balls Still Moving
6.10 Bad Cue Ball Placement
6.11 Bad Play from Behind the Head String For a foul under the second paragraph of 6.11, the cue ball is in hand behind the head string for the incoming player.
6.12 Cue Stick on the Table
6.13 Playing out of Turn
6.15 Slow Play

4.10 Breaking Foul
A breaking foul is penalized by the loss of two points as mentioned under 4.3 Opening Break Shot, as well as a possible re-break. If both a standard foul and a breaking foul happen on one shot, it is considered a breaking foul.

4.11 Serious Fouls
For Rule 6.14 Three Consecutive Fouls, only standard fouls are counted, so a breaking foul does not count as one of the three fouls. A point is subtracted for the third foul as usual, and then the additional fifteen-point penalty is subtracted and the offending player’s consecutive foul count is reset to zero. All fifteen balls are re-racked and the offending player is required to shoot under the requirements of the opening break.
For 6.16 Unsportsmanlike Conduct, the referee will choose a penalty depending on the nature of the offense.

4.12 Stalemate
If a stalemate occurs (see 1.12 Stalemate), the players will lag again to determine who will shoot an opening break.

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